Publications

79. Junfeng Guo and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Kinetic and Thermodynamic Requirements for Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ether Synthesis Catalyzed by Ion-exchange Resin”, Submitted.

78. Haoyu Nie, Alyssa J. R. Hensley, Junnan Shangguan, Zhishan Li, Junfeng Guo, Jacob E. Bray, Weihua Ma, Jean-Sabin McEwen, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “How Solvent Mediates the Catalytic Fate of 2-Methoxyphenol in Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysis”, Submitted.

77. Guangming Cai and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Consequences of Protons in Methanol Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Molybdenum-Based Polyoxometalate Clusters“, ACS Catalysis, 2024, 14, 6674.

76. William T. Broomhead and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Functional Assessment of Lewis Acid Strength of Structurally Complex Solid Acids“, ACS Catalysis, 2024, 14, 2235.

75. Book Chapter: William T. Broomhead and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Connection of Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Oxidation Catalysis on Transition Metals and Oxides“, in Catalysis, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2024, 35, Chapter 3, pg. 69-105.

74. Guangming Cai and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Sequences and Kinetic Requirements for C−O Bond Scission and Formation in Methanol and Trioxane on Solid Polyoxometalate Clusters“, ACS Catalysis, 2023, 13, 14828.

73. Guangming Cai, William T. Broomhead, Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, and Haiting Cai, “Advanced Kinetic and Titration Strategies for Assessing the Intrinsic Kinetics on Oxide and Sulfide Catalysts“, Topic in Catalysis, 2023, 66, 1102.

72. V. Fung, M. Janik, S. Crossley, Y-H. Chin, and A. Savara, “Toward Understanding and Controlling Organic Reactions on Metal Oxide Catalysts“, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2023, 127, 13451.

71. M. G. Lee, X-Y. Li, A. Ozden, J. Wicks, P. Ou, Y. Li, R. Dorakhan, J. Lee, H. K. Park, J. W. Yang, B. Chen, J. Abed, R. dos Reis, G. Lee, J. E. Huang, T. Peng, Y-H. Chin, D. Sinton, and E. H. Sargent, “Selective synthesis of butane from carbon monoxide using cascade electrolysis and thermocatalysis at ambient conditions“, Nature Catalysis, 2023, 6, 310.

70. W. Tu, P. Ren, Y. Li, Y. Yang, Y. Tian, Z. Zhang, M. Zhu, Y-H. Chin, J. Gong, and Y-F. Han, “Gas-Dependent Active Sites on Cu/ZnO Clusters for CH3OH Synthesis“, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2023, 145, 8751.

69. Rui Yao, Jayson Pinals, Roham Dorakhan, José E Herrera, Minhua Zhang, Prashant Deshlahra, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Cobalt-molybdenum oxides for effective coupling of ethane activation and carbon dioxide reduction catalysis“, ACS Catalysis, 2022, 12, 12227.

68. William T. Broomhead, Wei Tian, José E. Herrera, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Kinetic Coupling of Redox and Acid Chemistry in Methanol Partial Oxidation on Vanadium Oxide Catalysts“, ACS Catalysis, 2022, 12, 11801.

67. Junnan Shangguan, Alyssa J. R. Hensley, Leander Morgenstern, Zhishan Li, Jean-Sabin McEwen, Weihua Ma, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Brønsted Acidity of H-adatoms at Protic Solvent-Transition Metal Interfaces and its Kinetic Consequences in Electrophilic Addition Reactions“, Journal of Catalysis, 2022, 408, 179.

66. Yifei Yang, Jaekyoung Lee, Roham Dorakhan, Haoyu Nie, Guangshi Fu, Alessandro Quarantotto, Jane Y Howe, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Active site structure and methane oxidation reactivity of bimetallic Pd and Pt nanoparticles“, Applied Catalysis A: General, 2022, 629, 118290.

65. Cheng, A. Jentys, O.Y. Gutiérrez, Y. Liu, Y-H. Chin, J. A. Lercher, “Critical role of solvent-modulated hydrogen-binding strength in the catalytic hydrogenation of benzaldehyde on palladium“, Nature Catalysis, 2021, 4, 976.

64. M. Semeniuk, Z. Sarshar, S. Gezahegn, Z. Li, A. Egbedina, J. Tjong, K. Oksman, Y-H. Chin, and M. Sain, “Catalytically transformed low energy intensive 2D-layered and single crystal-graphitic renewable carbon cathode conductors“, Carbon, 2021, 183, 243.

63. Haiting Cai, Roberto Schimmenti, Matthew V. Gradiski, Robert H. Morris, Manos Mavrikakis, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Mechanistic Similarities and Differences for Hydrogenation of Aromatic Heterocycles and Aliphatic Carbonyls on Sulfided Ru Nanoparticles“, ACS Catalysis, 2021, 11, 12575.

62. Activity Article: Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin and Sourav K. Sengupta, “Deciphering the dance steps of reactive hydrogen at fluid-transition-metal interfaces“, Chem Catalysis, 2021, 1, 238.

61. Activity Article: Sourav K. Sengupta and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived feedstocks to value-added chemical intermediates“, Chem Catalysis, 2021, 1, 236.

60. X. Zhang, N. Chaudhary, M. R. Hawkins, C. B. Cockreham, C. Yang, J. Shangguan, A. J. R. Hensley, Y-H. Chin, S. Ha, J-S. McEwen, and D. Wu, “Determining the Hydration Energetics on Carbon-Supported Ru Catalysts: An Adsorption Calorimetry and Density Functional Theory Study“, Catalysis Today, 2021, 365, 172.

59. A. J. R. Hensley, J. Bray, J. Shangguan, Y-H. Chin, and J-S. McEwen, “Catalytic Consequences of Hydrogen Addition Events and Solvent-Adsorbate Interactions during Guaiacol-H2 Reactions at the H2O-Ru(0001) Interface“, Journal of Catalysis, 2021, 395, 467.

58. Zhenwei Wu and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic pathways and mechanistic consequences of water during vapor phase hydrogenation of butanal on Ru/SiO2“, Journal of Catalysis, 2021, 394, 429.

57. W. Wu, D. T. Tran, S. Cheng, Y. Zhang, N. Li, Huiyong Chen; Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin; Libo Yao; Dongxia Liu, “Local Environment and Catalytic Property of Lewis Acid Sites in Hierarchical Lamellar Titanium Silicalite-1 Zeolites“, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 2021, 311, 110710.

56. Haiting Cai and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Effects of Chemisorbed Sulfur on Pyridine and Cyclohexene Hydrogenation on Pd and Pt Clusters“, ACS Catalysis, 2021, 11, 1684.

55. Junnan Shangguan, Alyssa Hensley, Matthew Gradiski, Niklas Pfriem, Jean-Sabin McEwen, Robert Morris, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “The Role of Protons and Hydrides in the Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Guaiacol at the Ruthenium Nanoparticle–Water Interface“, ACS Catalysis, 2020, 10, 12310.

54. Rui Yao; José E. Herrera; Minhua Zhang; Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Generalized Mechanistic Framework for Ethane Conversion to Ethylene on MoOx Catalysts“, ACS Catalysis, 2020, 10, 6952.

53. Haiting Cai, Roberto Schimmenti, Haoyu Nie, Manos Mavrikakis, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Mechanistic Role of the Proton–Hydride Pair in Heteroarene Catalytic Hydrogenation“, ACS Catalysis, 2019, 9, 9418.

52. Haoyu Nie, Jane Y. Howe, Petar Lachkov, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Chemical and Structural Dynamics of Nanostructures in Bimetallic Pt-Pd Catalysts, Their Inhomogeneity, and Their Roles in Methane Oxidation“, ACS Catalysis, 2019, 9, 5445.

51. Junnan Shangguan and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Kinetic Significance of Proton-Electron Transfer during Condensed Phase Reduction of Carbonyl on Transition Metal Clusters“, ACS Catalysis, 2019, 9, 1763.
TOC_Lin and Chin_ACS Catal 2016

50. R. U. Ndubuisi, S. Sinichi, Y‐H. Chin, and L. L. Diosady, “Diesel Precursors via Catalytic Hydrothermal Deoxygenation of Aqueous Canola Oil Emulsion“, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 2019, 96, 535.

49. T. Kropp, Z. Lu, Z. Li, Y-H. Chin, and M. Mavrikakis, “Anionic Single-atom Catalysts for CO Oxidation: Support-independent Activity at Low Temperatures“, ACS Catalysis, 2019, 9, 1595.
TOC_Lin and Chin_ACS Catal 2016

48. A. Ehrmaier, Y. Liu, S. Peitz, A. Jentys, Y-H. Chin, M. Sanchez-Sanchez, R. Bermejo-Deval, and J. Lercher, “Dimerization of Linear Butenes on Zeolite-Supported Ni2+“,  ACS Catalysis, 2019, 9, 315.
TOC_Lin and Chin_ACS Catal 2016

47. Junnan Shangguan, Niklas Pfriem, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Mechanistic Details of C-O Bond Activation in and H-addition to Guaiacol at Water-Ru Cluster Interfaces“, Journal of Catalysis, 2019, 370, 186.

46. Petar Lachkov and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Influence of Carbon and Oxygen Chemical Potentials on the Hydrogen Donor Identity during Methanation on Ni, Co, and Ni‐Co Clusters“, ChemCatChem, 2019, 11, 1244.

45. Petar Lachkov and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Consequences of Reactive Intermediates during CO Oxidation on Ag Clusters“, ACS Catalysis, 2018, 8, 11987.
TOC_Lin and Chin_ACS Catal 2016

44. Petar Lachkov and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic consequences of reactive oxygen species during C3H6 oxidation on Ag clusters“, Journal of Catalysis, 2018, 366, 127.

43. Fan Lin, Junyan Zhang, Dongxia Liu, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Cascade Reactions in Tunable Lamellar Micro-Mesopores for C=C Bond Coupling and Hydrocarbon Synthesis“, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2018, 57, 12886.

42. Weifeng Tu, Mireille Ghoussoub, Chandra Veer Singh, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Consequences of Surface Oxophilicity of Ni, Ni-Co, and Co Clusters on Methane Activation“, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2017, 139, 6928.
TOC_Lin and Chin_ACS Catal 2016

41. Yifei Yang, Fan Lin, Honghi Tran, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Butanal Condensation Chemistry Catalyzed by Brønsted Acid Sites on Polyoxometalate Clusters“, ChemCatChem, 2017, 6, 287.
Yang_et_al-2017-ChemCatChemChemCatChem Cover

40. Fan Lin and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Pathways and Kinetic Requirements for Alkanal Deoxygenation on Solid Tungstosilicic Acid Clusters“, ACS Catalysis, 2016, 6, 6634.

39. Fan Lin and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Alkanal Transfer Hydrogenation Catalyzed by Solid Brønsted Acid Sites“, Journal of Catalysis, 2016, 341, 136.
TOC_Lin

38. Y-H. Chin, M. García-Diéguez, and E. Iglesia, “Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Pd–PdO Phase Transitions: Effects of Pd Cluster Size and Kinetic Implications for Catalytic Methane Combustion“, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2016, 120, 1446.
Pd-PdO

37. Junnan Shangguan, Mariefel V. Olarte, and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Mechanistic Insights on C-O and C-C Bond Activation and Hydrogen Insertion during Acetic Acid Hydrogenation Catalyzed by Ruthenium Clusters in Aqueous Medium“, Journal of Catalysis, 2016, 340, 107.

36. Weifeng Tu and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen during Methanol Oxidative Dehydrogenation on Pd Clusters“, ACS Catalysis, 2015, 5, 3375.
TOC Tu 2015 ACS Catalysis

35. Weifeng Tu and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Consequences of the Thermodynamic Activities at Metal Cluster Surfaces and their Periodic Reactivity Trend for Methanol Oxidation“, Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 2014, 53, 12148.
TOC-tu

34. Weifeng Tu and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Catalytic Consequences of the Identity and Coverages of Reactive Intermediates during Methanol Partial Oxidation on Pt Clusters“, Journal of Catalysis, 2014, 313, 55.

33. Fan Lin and Ya-Huei (Cathy) Chin, “Mechanism of intra- and inter-molecular C=C bond formation of propanal on Brønsted acid sites contained within MFI zeolites“, Journal of Catalysis, 2014, 311, 244.
TOC_Lin-JC2014.gif

32. Y-H. Chin, C. Buda, M. Neurock, and E. Iglesia, “Consequences of Metal–Oxide Interconversion for C–H Bond Activation during CH4 Reactions on Pd Catalysts“, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2013, 135, 15425.
TOC_Chin-JACS2013

31. M. García-Diéguez, Y-H. Chin, and E. Iglesia, “Catalytic Reactions of Dioxygen with Ethane and Methane on Platinum Clusters: Mechanistic Connections, Site Requirements, and Consequences of Chemisorbed Oxygen”, Journal of Catalysis, 2012, 285, 20.

30. Y-H. Chin and E. Iglesia, “Elementary Steps, the Role of Chemisorbed Oxygen, and the Effects of Cluster Size in Catalytic CH4-O2 Reactions on Palladium”, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 2011, 115, 17845.

29. Y-H. Chin, C. Buda, M. Neurock, and E. Iglesia, “Reactivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen Atoms and their Catalytic Consequences during CH4-O2 Catalysis on Supported Pt Clusters”, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2011, 133, 5958.

28. Y-H. Chin, C. Buda, M. Neurock, and E. Iglesia, “Selectivity of Chemisorbed Oxygen in C-H Bond Activation and CO Oxidation and Kinetic Consequences for CH4-O2 Catalysis on Pt and Rh Clusters”, Journal of Catalysis, 2011, 283, 10.

27. E. B. Fox, S. Velu, M. H. Engelhard, Y-H. chin, J. T. Miller, J. Kropf, C. S. Song, “Characterization of CeO2-supported Cu-Pd bimetallic catalyst for the oxygen-assisted water-gas-shift reaction”, Journal of Catalysis, 2008, 260, 358.

26. D. L. King, J. J. Strohm, X. Q. Wang, H. S. Roh, C.M. Wang, Y-H. Chin, Y. Wang, Y.B. Lin, R. Rozmiarek, and P. Singh, “Effect of nickel microstructure on methane steam-reforming activity of Ni-YSZ cermet anode catalyst”, Journal of Catalysis, 2008, 258, 356.

25. D.H. Kim, Y-H. Chin, J. H. Kwak, C.H. F. Peden, “Promotional effects of H2O treatment on NOx storage over fresh and thermally aged Pt-BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalyst”, Catalysis Letters, 2008, 124, 39.

24. D.H. Kim, Y-H. Chin, G. C. Muntean, A. Yezerets, N. W. Currier, W. S. Epling, H. Y. Chen, H. Hess, and C.H. F. Peden, “Design of a reaction protocol for decoupling sulfur removal and thermal aging effects during desulfation of Pt-BaO/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalyst”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2007, 46, 2735.

23. R.A. Dagle, Y-H. Chin, Y. Wang, “The effects of PdZn crystallite size on methanol steam reforming”, Topics in Catalysis, 2007, 46, 358.

22. D.H. Kim, Y-H. Chin, G. C. Muntean, A. Yezerets, N. W. Currier, W. S. Epling, H. Y. Chen, H. Hess, and C.H. F. Peden, “Relationship of Pt particle size to the NOx storageperformance of thermally aged Pt/Ba/Al2O3 lean NOx trap catalysts”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2006, 45, 8815.

21. Y-H. Chin, D. L. King, H. S. Roh, Y. Wang, and S. M. Heald, “Structure and reactivity investigations on supported bimetallic Au-Ni catalysts used for hydrocarbon steam reforming”, Journal of Catalysis, 2006, 244, 153.

20. H. S. Roh, Y. Wang, D. L. Wang, A. Platon, and Y-H. Chin, “Low temperature and H2 selective catalysts for ethanol steam reforming”, Catalysis Letters, 2006, 108, 15.

19. R. S. Disselkamp, R. G. Tonkyn, Y-H. Chin, and C. H. Peden, “Developing multiple-site kinetic models in catalysis simulation: A case study of O2+2NO ↔ 2NO2 oxidation-reduction chemistry on Pt(100) catalyst crystal facets”, Journal of Catalysis, 2006, 238, 1.

18. J. Kugai, V. Subramani, C. S. Song, M. H. Engelhard, and Y-H. Chin, “Effects of nanocrystalline CeO2 supports on the properties and performance of Ni-Rh bimetallic catalyst for oxidative steam reforming of ethanol”, Journal of Catalysis, 2006, 238, 430.

17. V. Subramani, C. Song, M. H. Engelhard, and Y-H. Chin, “Adsorptive removal of organic sulfur compounds from jet fuel over K-exchanged Ni-Y zeolites prepared by impregnation and ion exchangeIndustrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2005, 44, 5740.

16. Book Chapter: D. Palo, J. Holladay, R. A. Dagle, and Y-H. Chin, “Integrated methanol fuel processors for portable fuel cell systems” in Microreactor Technology and Process Intensifications, ACS Symposium Series, 2005, 914, Chapter 13, pg. 209-223.

15. Book Chapter: Y. Wang, B. R. Johnson, J. Cao, Y-H. Chin, R. T. Rozmiarek, Y. Gao, and A. L. Tonkovich, “Engineered catalysts for microchannel reactor applications” in Microreactor Technology and Process Intensifications, ACS Symposium Series, 2005, 914, Chapter 6, pg. 102-118.

14. D. Kim, Y-H. Chin, J. Kwak, J. Szanyi, and C. H. Peden, “Changes in Ba phases in BaO/Al2O3 upon thermal aging and H2O treatment“, Catalysis Letters, 2005, 105, 259.

13. Y-H. Chin, J. L. Hu, C-S. Cao, Y-F. Gao, and Y. Wang, “Preparation of a novel structured catalyst based on aligned carbon nanotube arrays for a microchannel Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactor”, Catalysis Today, 2005, 110, 47.

12. S-Y. Chin, Y-H. Chin, M. D. Amiridis, “Hydrogen production via the catalytic cracking of ethane over Ni/SiO2 catalysts”, Applied Catalysis A: General, 2006, 300, 8.

11. R.S. Disselkamp, Y-H. Chin, and C.H. Peden, “The effect of cavitating ultrasound on the heterogeneous aqueous hydrogenation of 3-buten-2-ol on Pd-black“, Journal of Catalysis, 2004, 227, 552.

10. Y. Wang, Y-H. Chin, R. T. Rozmiarek, B. R. Johnson, Y. Gao, J. Watson, A. Y. L. Tonkovich, and D. P. VanderWiel, “Highly active and stable Rh/MgO-Al2O3 catalysts for methane steam reforming”, Catalysis Today, 2004, 98, 575.

9. Y-H. Chin, Y. Wang, R.A. Dagle, and X-S. Li, “Methanol steam reforming over Pd/ZnO: Catalyst preparation and pretreatment studies”, Fuel Processing Technology, 2003, 83, 193.

8. J. Hu, Y. Wang, D. VanderWiel, C. Chin, D. Palo, R. Rozmiarek, R. Dagle, J. Cao, J. Holladay, and E. Baker, “Fuel processing for portable power applications”, Chemical Engineering Journal, 2003, 93, 55.

7. D. R. Palo, J.D. Holladay, R.T. Rozmiarek, C.E. Guzman-Leong, Y. Wang, J. Hu, Y-H. Chin, R.A. Dagle, and E.G. Baker, “Development of a Soldier-Portable Fuel Cell Power System, Part I:A Bread-Board Methanol Fuel Processor“, Journal of Power Sources, 2002, 108, 28.

6. Y-H. Chin, R. Dagle, J. Hu, A. Dohnalkova, and Y. Wang, “Steam reforming of methanol over highly active Pd/ZnO catalyst”, Catalysis Today, 2002, 77, 79.

5. Y-H. Chin, W. E. Alvarez, and D. E. Resasco, “Sulfated zirconia and tungstated zirconia as effective supports for Pd-based SCR catalysts”, Catalysis Today, 2000, 62, 159.

4. Y-H. Chin, W. E. Alvarez, and D. E. Resasco, “Comparison between CH4 and C3H6 as reducing agents in the SCR of NO over Pd supported on tungstated zirconia”, Catalysis Today, 2000, 62, 291.

3. Book Chapter: Y-H. Chin and D. E. Resasco, “Catalytic oxidation of methane on supported Pd under lean conditions: kinetics, structure, and properties”, in Catalysis, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999, 14, Chapter 1, pg. 1-39.

2. Y-H. Chin, A. Pisanu, L. Serventi, W. E. Alvarez, and D. E. Resasco, “NO reduction by methane in the presence of excess oxygen over Pd/Sulfated Zirconia catalysts”, Catalysis Today, 1999, 54, 419.

1. A. Ali, Y-H. Chin, and D. E. Resasco, “Redispersion of Pd on acidic supports and loss of methane combustion activity during the selective reduction of NO by CH4”, Catalysis Letters, 1998, 56, 111.

Patents

14. U.S. Patent 7585472: Microcombustors, microreformers and methods involving combusting or reforming fluids. Issue Date 09/08/2009.

13. U.S. Patent 7563390 B2: Alcohol steam reforming catalysts and methods of alcohol steam reforming. Issue Date 07/21/2009.

12. U.S. Patent 7470648: Reforming catalysts. Issue Date 12/30/2008.

11. AU 2002/367020 B2: Structures containing carbon nanotubes and a porous support, methods of making the same, and related uses. Issue Date 11/20/2008.

10. U.S. Patent 7288576: Carbon nanotube-containing catalysts, methods of making, and reactions catalyzed over nanotube catalysts. Issue date: 10/30/2007.

9. U.S. Patent 7208136: Alcohol steam reforming catalysts and methods of alcohol steam reforming. Issue date: 4/24/2007.

8. U.S. Patent 7084180: Fischer-tropsch synthesis using microchannel technology and novel catalyst and microchannel reactor. Issue date: 08/01/2006.

7. U.S. Patent 7077643 B2: Microcombustors, microreformers, and methods for combusting and for reforming fluids. Issue date: 07/18/2006.

6. EP 1651562 (A2): Catalysts, systems and methods of steam reforming, and methods of making steam reforming catalysts. Issue date: 05/03/2006.

5. U.S. Patent 7011760: Carbon nanotube-containing structures, methods of making, and processes using same. Issue date: 03/14/2006

4. U.S. Patent 7008969: Carbon nanotube-containing catalysts, methods of making, and reactions catalyzed over nanotube catalysts. Issue date: 03/07/2006.

3. CA 2560831: Protected alloy surfaces in microchannel apparatus and catalysts, alumina supported catalysts, catalyst intermediates, and methods of forming catalysts and microchannel apparatus. Issue date: 09/22/2006

2. U.S. Patent 6824689: Carbon nanotube-containing structures, methods of making, and processes using same. Issue date: 11/30/2004.

1. U.S. Patent 6713519: Carbon nanotube-containing catalysts, methods of making, and reactions catalyzed over nanotube catalysts. Issue date: 03/30/2004.